BRITS have been warned cases of another Victorian disease could be on the rise.
Experts say bacteria that cause typhoid are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics.
It comes after an outbreak of tuberculosis (TB) was detected in Wales after one person sadly died from the disease.
Cases of diseases such as scarlet fever and measles were previously found to be at a five-year high.
Now, a new study suggests that the largest typhoid species, Salmonella enterica, serovar typhi (S. Typhi) has spread.
The disease originated in South Asia, but medics at Stanford said it has spread to other countries nearly 200 times since 1990.
In general, antibiotic resistance has declined in South Asia.
According to experts, strains resistant to macrolides and quinolones – two of the most important antibiotics for human health – have proliferated and spread to other countries.
dr Jason Andrews of Stanford University and the paper’s lead author said it was a “cause for concern.”
“It underscores the need to urgently scale up preventive measures, particularly in the most vulnerable countries.
“At the same time, the fact that resistant strains of S. Typhi have so often spread internationally also underscores the need to treat typhoid control and antibiotic resistance in general as a global rather than a local issue,” said Dr. andrews
Published in the journal The Lancet Microbe, the experts examined blood samples collected between 2014 and 2019.
These came from 3,489 typhoid strains in people from Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan with confirmed cases of typhoid.
Physicians also added 4,169 samples from 70 countries between 1905 and 2018.
Their analysis found that resistant S. Typhi strains have spread between countries at least 197 times since 1990.
These tribes are most common in South Asia and from South Asia to Southeast Asia, East and South Africa.
However, doctors found that they had also been reported in the UK, US and Canada.
What is typhoid?
Typhoid is a bacterial infection that can spread throughout the body and affect many organs.
Without prompt treatment, it can lead to serious complications and be fatal.
It is caused by a bacterium called Salmonella typhi, which is related to the bacteria that cause Salmonella food poisoning.
Typhoid is highly contagious. An infected person can shed the bacteria from their body in their feces or, less commonly, their urine.
If someone else eats food or drinks water contaminated with a small amount of infected feces or urine, they can contract the bacteria and develop typhoid fever.
Typhoid fever is most common in parts of the world with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water.
Children worldwide are considered to be most at risk of contracting typhoid because their immune systems are still developing.
The main symptoms of typhoid are:
- a high temperature that can reach 39 to 40 ° C
- general aches and pains
As the infection progresses, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea can occur. Some people may develop a rash.
If typhoid is not treated, symptoms will continue to worsen over the following weeks and the risk of potentially fatal complications will increase.
Typhoid is uncommon in the UK, with an estimated 500 cases occurring each year.
In most of these cases, the person contracted the infection while visiting relatives in Bangladesh, India, or Pakistan.
But there is also a risk of infection when visiting Asia, Africa or South America.
Mutations resistant to quinolones have been disseminated at least 94 times since 1990 – half of them in South Asia.
Experts added that mutations causing resistance to azithromycin – a widely used antibiotic – have emerged at least seven times in the last 20 years.
Medics said their findings add to evidence of a rapid rise and spread of strains resistant to antibiotics, which are vital to human health.
Pet owners have recently been warned against sharing their beds with their dogs with an “untreatable superbug”.
The mcr-1 gene and it is transmitted from animals to humans through microscopic particles of feces.
It makes bacteria resistant to colistin, a last-line antibiotic used to treat infections when all else has failed.
The CDC said: “Bacteria will inevitably find ways to resist antibiotics developed by humans.
“That’s why it’s more important than ever to slow the spread of resistance by putting infection control measures in place for each patient.”
When there is an increase in bacteria resistant to all antibiotics, it leads to many untreatable infections and ultimately more deaths.
If infection rates don’t slow, 10 million deaths from drug-resistant infections are projected to occur each year by 2050.
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https://www.the-sun.com/health/5614742/warning-rise-victorian-disease-bacteria-immune-drugs/ Warning of emergence of another Victorian disease as bacteria become ‘immune to drugs’