GENEVA – hundred days in Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, war has given the world an almost daily bang of heartbreaking scenes: civilian corpses in the streets of Bucha; a bloated theatre in Mariupol; the chaos at a train station in Kramatorsk after a Russian missile attack.
These pictures tell only part of the whole picture Europe’s worst armed conflict in decades. Here’s a look at some numbers and statistics that – while in flux and at times uncertain – shed further light on the death, destruction, displacement and economic devastation the war has wrought as it reaches this milestone, with no end in sight.
THE HUMAN CUSTOMS
No one really knows how many combatants or civilians died, and casualty claims made by government officials — who sometimes exaggerate or downplay their numbers for publicity reasons — are all but impossible to verify.
Government officials, UN agencies and others carrying out the grim task of counting the dead are not always given access to sites where people have been killed.
And Moscow has released scant information on casualties among its forces and allies, and has given no figures on civilian deaths in areas under its control. In some places – such as long besieged city of Mariupolpossibly the war’s biggest killing field – Russian forces are accused of trying to cover up deaths and dumping bodies in mass graves, obscuring the total toll.
Despite all these reservations, “at least tens of thousands” of Ukrainian civilians have died so far, President Volodymyr Zelenskyy said in a statement to the Luxembourg parliament on Thursday.
In Mariupol alone, officials have reported over 21,000 civilian deaths. Sievierodonetsk, a city in the eastern region of Luhansk that has become the focal point of the Russian offensive, has suffered about 1,500 casualties, according to the mayor.
Such estimates include both those killed by Russian strikes or troops and those who succumbed to secondary effects such as starvation and disease when food and health services collapsed.
Zelenskyi said this week that every day 60 to 100 Ukrainian soldiers die in combat and around 500 others are injured.
Russia’s last publicly released figures for its own armed forces came on March 25, when a general told state media that 1,351 soldiers had been killed and 3,825 wounded.
Observers from Ukraine and the West say the real number is much higher: Zelenskyy said Thursday that more than 30,000 Russian soldiers had died – “more than the Soviet Union lost in 10 years of war in Afghanistan”; At the end of April, the British government estimated Russian losses at 15,000.
On condition of anonymity Wednesday to discuss intelligence matters, a Western official said Russia is “still claiming casualties, but… in smaller numbers.” The official estimates that around 40,000 Russian soldiers were wounded.
In Moscow-backed separatist enclaves in eastern Ukraine, authorities have reported over 1,300 fighters lost and nearly 7,500 wounded in the Donetsk region, along with 477 civilians dead and nearly 2,400 wounded; plus 29 civilians killed and 60 wounded in Luhansk.
Incessant shelling, bombing and air raids have reduced large parts of many cities and towns to rubble.
Ukraine’s Parliamentary Commission on Human Rights says the Russian military has destroyed nearly 38,000 residential buildings, including about 220,000 people homeless.
Almost 1,900 educational institutions from kindergartens to elementary schools to universities were damaged, 180 of them were completely destroyed.
Other infrastructure damage includes 300 car and 50 railway bridges, 500 factories and about 500 damaged hospitals, according to Ukrainian officials.
The World Health Organization has counted 296 attacks on hospitals, ambulances and medical workers in Ukraine this year.
The UN refugee agency UNHCR estimates that around 6.8 million people were displaced from Ukraine at some point during the conflict.
But since fighting in the Kyiv area and elsewhere subsided and Russian forces moved east and south, about 2.2 million have returned to the country, it said.
The UN’s International Organization for Migration estimates that as of May 23 there were more than 7.1 million internally displaced persons – those who fled their homes but remained in the country. That’s down from over 8 million at a previous count.
Ukrainian officials say that before the February invasion, Russia controlled about 7% of Ukraine’s territory, including Crimea, which Russia annexed in 2014, and separatist-held areas in Donetsk and Luhansk. On Thursday, Zelenskyy said Russian forces now own 20% of the country.
As the front lines keep shifting, that means an additional 58,000 square kilometers (22,000 sq mi) under Russian control, a total area slightly larger than Croatia or slightly smaller than the US state of West Virginia.
THE ECONOMIC IMPACT IN RUSSIA AND UKRAINE…
The West has imposed a series of retaliatory sanctions on Moscow, including on the important oil and gas sector, and Europe is beginning to de-dependence on Russian energy.
Evgeny Gontmakher, Scientific Director of the European Dialogue, wrote in a newspaper this week that Russia is currently facing over 5,000 targeted sanctions, more than any other country. Around $300 billion in Russian gold and foreign exchange reserves in the west have been frozen, he added, and air traffic in the country has dropped from 8.1 million to 5.2 million passengers between January and March.
Also, the Kyiv School of Economics has reported that more than 1,000 “Self-sanctioning” companies have restricted their activities in Russia.
The MOEX Russia stock index has fallen about a quarter since just before the invasion and is down nearly 40 percent year-to-date. And Russia’s central bank said last week that annualized inflation was 17.8 percent in April.
Ukraine, meanwhile, has reported that it has suffered a staggering economic blow: 35% of GDP has been wiped out by the war.
“Our direct losses today exceed $600 billion,” Andriy Yermak, the head of Zelenskyy’s office, said recently.
Ukraine, a major agricultural producer, says it has failed to export about 22 million tons of grain. It blames Russian blockades or the capture of important ports for a delivery backlog. Zelenskyy this week accused Russia of stealing at least half a million tons of grain during the invasion.
… AND THE WORLD
The fallout has spread across the globe, driving up the cost of basic goods on top of inflation, which was well underway in many places before the invasion.
Crude oil prices in London and New York are up 20-25 per cent, leading to higher prices at the pump and for a range of petroleum-based products.
Developing countries are under particular pressure from higher food, fuel and financing costs, according to economist Richard Kozul-Wright of the UN Conference on Trade and Development
The wheat supply was cut off African nations that imported 44% of their wheat from Russia and Ukraine in the years immediately preceding the invasion. The African Development Bank has reported a 45% rise in grain prices on the continent, affecting everything from Mauritanian couscous to the fried donuts sold in Congo.
Karmanau reported from Lemberg, Ukraine.
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https://www.local10.com/news/world/2022/06/03/explainer-at-100-days-russia-ukraine-war-by-the-numbers/ After 100 days of the war between Russia and Ukraine in numbers